Who (Author)When (Publication Date)What (Title)Where (Publication Information)
Formatting Author InformationCiting Personal CommunicationsCiting Indirect Sources (secondary sources)Citing Sources with Missing Information (author, date, or page numbers)
Periodicals (journals, magazines, newspapers, etc.)Books, eBooks, Book ChaptersReports and StandardsMeetings and SymposiaReviews and CommentaryDissertations and ThesesAV, Music, Videos, Podcasts, Artwork, MoviesData, Instruments, and SoftwareUnpublished and Informally Published WorksArchival Documents and CollectionsEmail, Web, Blogs, etc.Legal MaterialsElectronically Retrieved Resources (DOIs, Databases, etc.)
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APA (6th ed.), Citation Style  

Last Updated: Sep 14, 2015 URL: http://alliant.libguides.com/apastyle Print Guide RSS Updates

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Build a Citation - WHAT

The WHAT of the citation can range from the title of the article or book chapter to the title of the entire book.  Here is a list of common elements and the APA example sources of the WHAT.


Elements of WHAT

APA Sources

Nonroutine information in titles

APA, p. 186, Section 6.29

Abstract

APA, p. 202, #16 & #17

APA, p. 207, #37

Podcast

APA, p. 210, #50

Clipping

APA, p. 214, #71

Apparatus

APA, p. 211, #57

Software

APA, p. 211, #55 & #57

Data File

APA, p. 211, #54

Demographic map

APA, p. 210, #53

Editorial

APA, p. 201, #14

Facebook post

APA Style Blog, “How to Cite Twitter and Facebook, Part II: Reference List Entries and In-Text Citations”

Lecture notes

APA Style Blog, “How to Cite Something You Found on a Website in APA Style”

Lithograph

APA Style Blog, “How to Cite Something You Found on a Website in APA Style”

Marble sculpture

APA Style Blog, “There's an Art to It”

Medium of recording (CD, record, cassette)

APA, p. 209, section 7.07

APA, p. 210, #52

Monograph

APA, p. 204, #33

Motion picture

APA, p. 209, section 7.07

Obituary

APA, p. 214, #71

Online forum comment

APA, pp. 214-215, section 7.11      
APA, p. 215, #74

Photographs

APA, p. 214, #73

Plaster cast

APA Style Blog, “There’s an Art to It”

Press Release

APA Style Blog, “How to Cite a Press Release in APA Style”

Review of a book

APA, p. 208, Section 7.06

APA, p. 209, #45

Review of a video

APA, p. 208, Section 7.06

APA, p. 209, #36

Review of a video game

APA, p. 208, Section 7.06

APA, p. 209, #37

Special issue

APA, p. 201, #12

Supplemental material/data

APA, p. 201, #15

Tape recording

APA, p. 214, #69

Television episode

APA, p. 210, #51

Twitter post

APA Style Blog, “How to Cite Twitter and Facebook, Part II: Reference List Entries and In-Text Citations”

Electronic version of a print book

APA, p. 203, #19

APA Style Blog, “How Do I Cite a Kindle?”

Video

APA, p. 209, #49

Video blog post

APA, p. 215, #77

Blog Comment

APA, p. 215, #76

Advance online publication

APA, p. 199, #5

Manuscript submitted for publication (but not yet accepted)

APA, p. 211, section 7.09
APA, p. 211, #59

Manuscript in preparation

APA, p. 211, section 7.09

Unpublished measurement instrument

APA, p. 211, #55

Unpublished manuscript

APA, p. 211, section 7.09
APA, p. 211, #58

Unpublished raw data

APA, p. 212, #60

Non-English title with translation

APA, p. 199, #4,
APA, p. 205, #28

Proper noun in title

APA, p. 101, Section 4.15

APA, p. 102 – 103, Section 4.16

Revised or new edition

APA, p. 205, #28 – 30

Multivolume work/series

APA, p. 204, #23 & #24

Subtitle/Two-part title

APA, p. 199, #4
APA, p. 205, #28

Title within a title

APA, p. 209, #45, #46, & #48

Translation of title into English

APA, p. 203, #21
APA, p. 204, #26

Untitled review of a work

APA, p. 208, Section 7.06: “If the review is untitled, use the material in brackets as the title; retain the brackets to indicate that the material is a description of form and content, not a title.”

Untitled letter

APA, p. 213, #63

Untitled raw data

APA, p. 212, #60

Untitled video game review

APA, p. 209, #47

Volume number of a book

APA, p. 204, #23, #24
APA, p. 207, #39

Volume number appearing with page numbers

APA, p. 203, #21


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